If the pandemic experience taught us anything about supply chains, it's the urgency of maintaining container flow through ports and terminals. The logic is simple: Too many containers — loaded or empty — sitting on terminal grounds slows productivity at the berth and the gate. As data clearly showed, lower productivity results in ships remaining at berth for longer, forcing incoming ships — and all of their cargo — to wait at anchor. Transit times, lead times, and inventory-carrying costs all increase as a direct result, while shippers' revenue and responsiveness to customer demands go down. Many factors work against flow: empties not being removed quickly, excessive free time within service contracts, and shippers and truckers' slow transition to 24/7 operations, to mention but a few. Unprecedented pressure obviously was placed on the system beginning in late 2020, but future shocks are a certainty, and lessons need to be learned. This session will address what steps need to be taken to ensure consistent flow going forward.